Monday, September 18, 2017

ontimitta

Kodandarama Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Rama, located in Vontimitta town in Rajampet taluk of Kadapa District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The temple, an example of Vijayanagara architectural style, is dated to the 16th century. It is stated to be the largest temple in the region. It is located at a distance of 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Kadapa and is close to Rajampet. The temple and its adjoining buildings are one of the centrally protected monumemts of national importance.The temple was built during the reign of Chola and Vijayanagara kings around the 16th century.

Bammera Potana who lived in Vontimitta wrote his magnum opus Maha Bhagavatham in Telugu language and dedicated it to Rama. Vavilakolanu Subba Rao, known as ‘Andhra Valmiki’ for translating Valmiki’s Ramayana (the Hindu epic that narrates Rama's tale) into Telugu also spent his time here worshipping Rama. The saint-poet Annamacharya is said to have visited the temple and composed and sang songs or kirtans in praise of Rama. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, a French traveler who had visited this temple in 1652, appreciated the elegance of the temple's architecture. There is Rama Baktha named Bhavanasi Mala Obanna sang songs or kirtans in praise of Rama in front of temple and there is symbol of Mandapam (Utla Stambam) Bhavanasi Mala Obanna in front of east Gopuram.
The temple, the largest in the region[3] is built in Vijayanagara style of architecture, in the "Sandhara" order[5] within a rectangular yard enclosed by walls. The temple, located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Siddhout via Bakarapeta, is architecturally elegant and impressive. It has three ornate Gopurams (towers) of which the central tower, which faces east, is the entrance gateway to the temple; the other two towers face north and south. This central tower is built in five tiers, and a number of steps are provided to access the approach gate of the tower.

The mandapa or the Rangamantapam, the open-air theatre, has exquisite sculptures. As the mandapa is supported over 32 pillars it is known as Madhyarangaradapam. The colonnades in the mandapa have carved figurines of attendant apsaras (nymphs). The columns of the central support system on the southern side display carvings of the gods Krishna and Vishnu. Each of the corner columns have three layers carved with images of apsaras and deities. In the central part of the mandapa, there are piers which are adorned with images of the mythical creatures yali. The roof of the central part is built up with many decorative brackets or corbels.[3] In one of the columns of the mandapa, images of Rama and his brother Lakshmana are sculpted. Rama is shown here in a standing position with bow in the right hand and arrow in the left hand. Other decorative art depiction in Rama's image consists of Kundalas (ear-rings), haras (garlands), valayas, yagnopavita (sacred thread) and so forth.Lakshmana's figure is sculpted in tribhanga posture with his right hand held down free while the left hand holds a bow. Adornments carved on this image are kirtimukuta (conical crown), graivevakas, channavira, udarbandha (waist band), yagnopavita and purnaruka.[8] Krishna is in dvibhanga posture with the left leg firmly on the ground and the right leg bent at the knee and crossed over the left leg, a style termed as Vyatyastapada. Of his two arms, the right hand is shown holding the Govardhan Hill while the other is rested on kati. The image is ornamented with kirtimukuta and many more other ornaments. Two cows are also depicted by his side.

ganesha

Ganesh Chaturthi (IAST: Gaṇēśa Chaturthī), also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi (Vināyaka Chaturthī) is the Hindu festival that reveres god Ganesha. A ten-day festival, it starts on the fourth day of Hindu luni-solar calendar month Bhadrapada, which typically falls in Gregorian months of August or September. The festival is marked with installation of Ganesha clay idols privately in homes, or publicly on elaborate pandals (temporary stage). Observations include chanting of Vedic hymns and Hindu texts such as Ganapati Upanishad, prayers and vrata (fasting). Offerings and prasada from the daily prayers, that is distributed from the pandal to the community, include sweets such as modaka believed to be a favorite of the elephant-headed deity. The festival ends on the tenth day after start, wherein the idol is carried in a public procession with music and group chanting, then immersed in nearby water body such as a river or ocean, thereafter the clay idol dissolves and Ganesha is believed to return to Mount Kailash to Parvati and Shiva.

The festival celebrates Lord Ganesha as the God of New Beginnings and the Remover of Obstacles and is observed throughout India, especially in the states of Maharashtra, Goa,Telangana, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh,and is usually celebrated privately at home in states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.Ganesh Chaturthi is also observed in Nepal and by the Hindu diaspora elsewhere such as in the Trinidad, Suriname, Fiji, Mauritius, United States and in Europe (in Tenerife).

At public venues, along with the reading of texts and group feasting, athletic and martial arts competitions are also held.
It is unclear when the festival started, it may have South Indian origins, but historical evidence suggests it became a major social and public event with sponsorship of Shivaji after Mughal-Maratha wars, and again in the 19th century after public appeal by Indian freedom fighter Lokmanya Tilak, who championed it as a means to circumvent the colonial British government ban on Hindu gatherings through its anti-public assembly legislation in 1892.
The earliest mention of Ganapati, now considered equivalent to Ganesha or Vinayaka, is found in the Rigveda. It appears twice in the Rigveda, once in hymn 2.23.1, as well as in hymn 10.112.9. Both of these hymns imply a role of Ganapati as "the seer among the seers, abounding beyond measure in food presiding among the elders and being the lord of invocation", while the hymn in mandala 10 states that without Ganapati "nothing nearby or afar is performed without thee", according to Michael. However, it is uncertain that the Vedic term Ganapati which literally means "guardian of the multitudes", referred specifically to later era Ganesha, nor do the Vedic texts mention Ganesha Chaturthi.

Ganapati appears in post-Vedic texts such as the Grhya Sutras and thereafter ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Vajasaneyi Samhita, the Yajnavalkya Smriti and the Mahabharata mention Ganapati as Ganesvaras and Vinayakas. Ganesha appears in the medieval Puranas in the form of "god of success, obstacle remover". The Skanda Purana, Narada Purana and the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, in particular, profusely praise him.[21] Beyond textual interpretations, archeological and epigraphical evidence suggest Ganesha had become popular, was revered before the 8th century CE and numerous images of him are traceable to 7th century or earlier. For example, carvings at Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples such as at the Ellora Caves, dated between the 5th and 8th century show Ganesha reverentially seated with major Hindu goddesses 

Johnson

Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 [O.S. 7 September] – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and is described by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history".He is the subject of the most famous biography in English literature, namely The Life of Samuel Johnson by James Boswell.

Born in Lichfield, Staffordshire, Johnson attended Pembroke College, Oxford, for just over a year, but a lack of funds forced him to leave. After working as a teacher, he moved to London, where he began to write for The Gentleman's Magazine. His early works include the biography Life of Mr Richard Savage, the poems London and The Vanity of Human Wishes, and the play Irene.

After nine years of work, Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755. It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been acclaimed as "one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship". This work brought Johnson popularity and success. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years later, Johnson's was the pre-eminent British dictionary. His later works included essays, an influential annotated edition of The Plays of William Shakespeare, and the widely read tale The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he later travelled to Scotland; Johnson described their travels in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland. Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, a collection of biographies and evaluations of 17th- and 18th-century poets.

Johnson was a tall and robust man. His odd gestures and tics were disconcerting to some on first meeting him. Boswell's Life, along with other biographies, documented Johnson's behaviour and mannerisms in such detail that they have informed the posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, a condition not defined or diagnosed in the 18th century. After a series of illnesses, he died on the evening of 13 December 1784, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the years following his death, Johnson began to be recognised as having had a lasting effect on literary criticism, and he was claimed by some to be the only truly great critic of English literature.

Samuel Johnson was born on 18 September 1709, to Michael Johnson, a bookseller, and his wife, Sarah Ford. He was born in the family home above his father's bookshop in Lichfield, Staffordshire. His mother Sarah was 40 when she gave birth to Samuel. This was considered an unusually late pregnancy, so precautions were taken, and a "man-midwife" and surgeon of "great reputation" named George Hector was brought in to assist. The infant Samuel did not cry, and there were concerns for the baby's health. His aunt exclaimed that, "she would not have picked such a poor creature up in the street." The family feared that the baby would not survive, and in this extremity, the vicar of St Mary's was summoned to perform a baptism. Two godfathers were chosen, Samuel Swynfen, a physician and graduate of Pembroke College, Oxford, and Richard Wakefield, a lawyer, coroner, and Lichfield town clerk.

Johnson's health soon improved and he was put to wet-nurse with Joan Marklew. Some time later, he contracted scrofula, known at the time as the "King's Evil" because it was thought royalty could cure it. Sir John Floyer, former physician to King Charles II, recommended that the young Johnson should receive the "royal touch",which he received from Queen Anne on 30 March 1712. However, the ritual was ineffective, and an operation was performed that left him with permanent scars across his face and body.With the birth of Johnson's brother, Nathaniel, a few months later, Michael became unable to pay the debts he had accrued over the years, and his family was no longer able to maintain its standard of living.

{{quote box|width=25em|align=left|quote=When he was a child in petticoats, and had learnt to read, Mrs. Johnson one morning put the common prayer-book into his hands, pointed to the collect for the day, and said, 'Sam, you must get this by heart.' She went up stairs, leaving him to study it: But by the time she had reached the second floor, she heard him following her. 'What's the matter?' said she. 'I can say it,' he replied; and repeated it distinctly, though he could not have read it more than twice.[16] |source=Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson displayed signs of great intelligence as a child, and his parents, to his later disgust, would show off his "newly acquired accomplishments". His education began at the age of three, and was provided by his mother, who had him memorise and recite passages from the Book of Common Prayer.[18] When Samuel turned four, he was sent to a nearby school, and, at the age of six he was sent to a retired shoemaker to continue his education.[19] A year later, Johnson went to Lichfield Grammar School, where he excelled in Latin.[20] During this time, Johnson started to exhibit the tics that would influence how people viewed him in his later years, and which formed the basis for the posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. He excelled at his studies and was promoted to the upper school at the age of nine. During this time, he befriended Edmund Hector, nephew of his "man-midwife" George Hector, and John Taylor, with whom he remained in contact for the rest of his life.

At the age of 16, Johnson was given the opportunity to stay with his cousins, the Fords, at Pedmore, Worcestershire. There he became a close friend of Cornelius Ford, who employed his knowledge of the classics to tutor Johnson while he was not attending school.[24] Ford was a successful, well-connected academic, but he was also a notorious alcoholic whose excesses contributed to his death six years later.[25] After spending six months with his cousins, Johnson returned to Lichfield, but Mr. Hunter, the headmaster, "angered by the impertinence of this long absence," refused to allow Samuel to continue at the grammar school. Unable to return to Lichfield Grammar School, Johnson was enrolled into the King Edward VI grammar school at Stourbridge.[24] Because the school was located near Pedmore, Johnson was able to spend more time with the Fords, and he began to write poems and verse translations.[26] However, he spent only six months at Stourbridge before returning once again to his parents' home in Lichfield.[27]


Entrance of Pembroke College, Oxford
During this time, Johnson's future was uncertain because his father was deeply in debt.[28] To earn money, Johnson began to stitch books for his father, and it is likely that Johnson spent much time in his father's bookshop reading and building his literary knowledge. The family remained in poverty until Sarah Johnson's cousin, Elizabeth Harriotts, died in February 1728 and left enough money to send Johnson to university.[29] On 31 October 1728, a few weeks after he turned 19, Johnson entered Pembroke College, Oxford.[30] The inheritance did not cover all of his expenses at Pembroke, but Andrew Corbet, a friend and fellow student at Pembroke, offered to make up the deficit.[31]

Johnson made friends at Pembroke and read much. In later life, he told stories of his idleness.[32] He was later asked by his tutor to produce a Latin translation of Alexander Pope's Messiah as a Christmas exercise.[33] Johnson completed half of the translation in one afternoon and the rest the following morning. Although the poem brought him praise, it did not bring the material benefit he had hoped for.[34] The poem later appeared in Miscellany of Poems (1731), edited by John Husbands, a Pembroke tutor, and is the earliest surviving publication of any of Johnson's writings. Johnson spent the rest of his time studying, even during the Christmas holiday. He drafted a "plan of study" called "Adversaria", which was left unfinished, and used his time to learn French while working on his Greek.[35]

After thirteen months, a shortage of funds forced Johnson to leave Oxford without a degree, and he returned to Lichfield.[29] Towards the end of Johnson's stay at Oxford, his tutor, Jorden, left Pembroke and was replaced by William Adams. He enjoyed Adams as a tutor, but by December, Johnson was already a quarter behind in his student fees, and he was forced to return home. He left behind many books that he had borrowed from his father because he could not afford to transport them, and also because he hoped to return to Oxford soon.

He eventually did receive a degree. Just before the publication of his Dictionary in 1755, Oxford University awarded Johnson the degree of Master of Arts.[37] He was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1765 by Trinity College Dublin and in 1775 by Oxford University.[38] In 1776, he returned to Pembroke with Boswell and toured the college with his former tutor Adams, who was now a Master. During that visit he recalled his time at the college, his early career, and expressed his later fondness for Jorden.

Early career
Little is known about Johnson's life between the end of 1729 and 1731. It is likely that he lived with his parents. He experienced bouts of mental anguish and physical pain during years of illness;his tics and gesticulations associated with Tourette syndrome became more noticeable and were often commented upon.[41] By 1731 Johnson's father was deeply in debt and had lost much of his standing in Lichfield. Johnson hoped to get an usher's position, which became available at Stourbridge Grammar School, but since he did not have a degree, his application was passed over on 6 September 1731.At about this time, Johnson's father became ill and developed an "inflammatory fever" which led to his death in December 1731.[42] Johnson eventually found employment as undermaster at a school in Market Bosworth, run by Sir Wolstan Dixie, 4th Baronet who allowed Johnson to teach without a degree.[43] Although Johnson was treated as a servant, he found pleasure in teaching even though he considered it boring. After an argument with Dixie he quit the school, and by June 1732 he had returned home.


Elizabeth "Tetty" Porter, Johnson's wife
Johnson continued to look for a position at a Lichfield school. After being turned down for a job at Ashbourne, he spent time with his friend Edmund Hector, who was living in the home of the publisher Thomas Warren. At the time, Warren was starting his Birmingham Journal, and he enlisted Johnson's help.[46] This connection with Warren grew, and Johnson proposed a translation of Jerónimo Lobo's account of the Abyssinians. Johnson read Abbé Joachim Le Grand's French translations, and thought that a shorter version might be "useful and profitable".[48] Instead of writing the work himself, he dictated to Hector, who then took the copy to the printer and made any corrections. Johnson's A Voyage to Abyssinia was published a year later.[48] He returned to Lichfield in February 1734, and began an annotated edition of Poliziano's Latin poems, along with a history of Latin poetry from Petrarch to Poliziano; a Proposal was soon printed, but a lack of funds halted the project.[49]

Johnson remained with his close friend Harry Porter during a terminal illness,[ which ended in Porter's death on 3 September 1734. Porter's wife Elizabeth (née Jervis) (otherwise known as "Tetty") was now a widow at the age of 45, with three children. Some months later, Johnson began to court her. The Reverend William Shaw claims that "the first advances probably proceeded from her, as her attachment to Johnson was in opposition to the advice and desire of all her relations,"[52] Johnson was inexperienced in such relationships, but the well-to-do widow encouraged him and promised to provide for him with her substantial savings. They married on 9 July 1735, at St Werburgh's Church in Derby.[54] The Porter family did not approve of the match, partly because of the difference in their ages. (Johnson was 25 and Elizabeth was 46.) Elizabeth's marriage to Johnson so disgusted her son Jervis that he severed all relations with her. However, her daughter Lucy accepted Johnson from the start, and her other son, Joseph, later came to accept the marriage.


Edial Hall School
In June 1735, while working as a tutor for the children of Thomas Whitby, a local Staffordshire gentleman, Johnson had applied for the position of headmaster at Solihull School.[57] Although Johnson's friend Gilbert Walmisley gave his support, Johnson was passed over because the school's directors thought he was "a very haughty, ill-natured gent, and that he has such a way of distorting his face (which though he can't help) the gents think it may affect some lads".[58] With Walmisley's encouragement, Johnson decided that he could be a successful teacher if he ran his own school. In the autumn of 1735, Johnson opened Edial Hall School as a private academy at Edial, near Lichfield. He had only three pupils: Lawrence Offley, George Garrick, and the 18-year-old David Garrick, who later became one of the most famous actors of his day. The venture was unsuccessful and cost Tetty a substantial portion of her fortune. Instead of trying to keep the failing school going, Johnson began to write his first major work, the historical tragedy Irene.Biographer Robert DeMaria believed that Tourette syndrome likely made public occupations like schoolmaster or tutor almost impossible for Johnson. This may have led Johnson to "the invisible occupation of authorship".

Johnson left for London with his former pupil David Garrick on 2 March 1737, the day Johnson's brother died. He was penniless and pessimistic about their travel, but fortunately for them, Garrick had connections in London, and the two were able to stay with his distant relative, Richard Norris.[61] Johnson soon moved to Greenwich near the Golden Hart Tavern to finish Irene. On 12 July 1737 he wrote to Edward Cave with a proposal for a translation of Paolo Sarpi's The History of the Council of Trent (1619), which Cave did not accept until months later.In October 1737 Johnson brought his wife to London, and he found employment with Cave as a writer for The Gentleman's Magazine. His assignments for the magazine and other publishers during this time were "almost unparalleled in range and variety," and "so numerous, so varied and scattered" that "Johnson himself could not make a complete list".[65] The name Columbia, a poetic name for America coined by Johnson, first appears in a 1738 weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament in The Gentlemen's Magazine.

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Nandyal’s MLA By-Election



The last time there was a nationwide interest in a bypoll in Nandyal, situated in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, was in 1991, when PV Narasimha Rao was unexpectedly elevated from political retirement and obscurity to Prime Ministership, after the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, leading to suspension of general elections mid-way and resulting in a sympathy wave that put Congress within distance of forming a government.
When time came for Narasimha Rao to lookout for an entry into Parliament as incumbent prime minister, Congress MP Gangula Prathapa Reddy resigned from one of the safest Congress seats to pave the way for the unexpected, and first, accidental prime minister to take to electoral hustings and finishing the formalities.
Matinee-idol turned politician, the-then president of the Telugu Desam Party, N T Rama Rao, declared support for Rao, even campaigned for him, declaring that the Nandyal Parliamentary bypolls was a matter of pride for the Telugu people.
A nondescript BJP candidate and a handful independents were hardly able to put up any challenge to Rao, even as the people of Nandyal took pride in sending the first prime minister from South India to Parliament with record numbers. Rao won, polling over 6.26 lakh votes, nearly 90 per cent of votes polled.
A small anecdote obscured by time was how Congress workers, in the badlands of Rayalaseema region, comprising the four districts of Kurnool, Kadapa, Chittoor and Anantapur, whose factional violence was immortalized in celluloid by Ramgopal Verma's 'Rakta Charithra', whisked away several independents from outside the returning officer's cabin and threw bombs at the convoy of potential TDP nominee, Bhuma Venkata Nagi Reddy, before NTR decided to withdraw from the fray.

Over 26 Years Later

Many moons later, in an MLA by-election fought more fiercely than the recent Amit Shah-Ahmed Patel faceoff in the Rajya Sabha poll from Gujarat, chief minister Nara Chandrababu Naidu and his challenger, Y S Jaganmohan Reddy, who wants nothing less than the Chief Ministership of AP since his father died in a helicopter accident, are locked in a vituperative, combative, hostile, take-no-prisoners battle for one-upmanship less than two years before the next Assembly elections over a bypoll necessitated by the death of the same Bhuma Nagi Reddy who had wanted to challenge Narasimha Rao.
In a region where factions have a higher loyalty than caste, for the perpetually-at-war Reddy warlords have a use for political parties, but are hardly bound by them. In over a decade, Nandyal politics has been shaped by the rivalry between Nagi Reddy and Shilpa Mohan Reddy, factionist-kings who lord over the area. They interchange parties, only rivalry is permanent.
In 2014, Shilpa Mohan Reddy fought on a TDP ticket and lost. Bhuma Nagi Reddy, who won on the YSR Congress Party, defected to the ruling TDP as an MLA. His sudden death after a heart attack forced today's byelections, where Shilpa Mohan Reddy, now fighting for the YSRCP is taking on Bhuma Brahmananda Reddy, nephew of the deceased Bhuma Nagi Reddy.
The Nagi Reddy family has its bit of ill-fortune. Bhuma Nagi Reddy's wife, Shobha Nagi Reddy, died in a road accident before the 2014 elections after filing her nomination on an YSRCP ticket. Though she died before the elections in a road accident, it was not countermanded and she went on to win posthumously. In the subsequent bye-election, Bhuma Akhila Priya, her daughter of 26 years, won and is now the youngest minister in the Naidu Cabinet after defecting with her dad to TDP.
Several factors cancel out, making this single election a razor-edge thriller. Three factors favour the ruling party, say TDP leaders; traditionally ruling parties win bypolls, a sympathy factor for Bhuma's death at a relatively young age and success of schemes of Chandrababu Naidu, including farm loan waivers, monthly pensions for senior citizens and the quick completion of the Pattiseema project, which brings irrigation and drinking water to the parched Rayalaseema.
The YSRCP, still seething from a close defeat in 2014, has built a momentum and consolidated the anti-government mood through constant agitations and exposures, belying the claims of the Telugu Desam leaders.
At a state-level, farmers who have lost lands for the capital, which has not seen much progress barring a modest temporary government block in disappointing contrast to the grandiose projections made of a global city are angry. Corruption in most departments and wide-spread loot by mafias with impunity has taken away from the sheen of Naidu's claims of morality, consequently, the stigma attached to YS Jaganmohan Reddy's corruption has come down, they claim.
The TDP encouraged defections from YSRCP, and awarding the turncoats with ministry positions has further damaged the Naidu government. Naidu had 102 MLAs in the 175 seat Assembly, and his ally, the BJP had four after 2014 elections, whereas YSRCP had 67 legislators. Within the first two years, 20 of them have defected to the TDP.
The inability to get the Special Category Status for AP from the Centre or a Railway Zone for Visakhapatnam has made Naidu look weak despite being an NDA ally. With YS Jaganmohan Reddy supporting NDA in the Presidential and Vice-Presidential elections, he has removed the 'Centre supports me' aura of Naidu largely.
While normally, a bypoll like this should have been only focussed on hyper-local issues, the prominence given to it by both parties have transformed it into a test of the mood of the people and every issue of State-level significance is also being brought to the fore.
The large-scale anger against the TDP government to fulfill promises at large has given YSRCP a huge boost, its party leaders say. Jaganmohan Reddy has succeeded in transforming the byolls into a referendum on the TDP government and a pointer to which way the 2019 elections will go.
The high-octane campaign for the bypoll was abusive, personal, polemic, indecent, vituperative and bereft of any decorum, and brought directly head-on the two contenders for the crown – Chandrababu Naidu and Jaganmohan Reddy.
Naidu, a cool calculated politician, lost his temper many a time, including chiding a villager who raised questions at a public meeting, saying, "If you will not vote for me, don't take the pensions my government gives or use the roads I have built. Who are you? A mad man? A YSRCP supporter?"
Within no time, Jagan handed the perception battle back, by asking people to publicly shoot or hang the chief minister for his failures. "It would not be wrong if we hanged Naidu publicly," he said, repeatedly.
This has been going on every day during roadshows, rallies, media interview. Reddy said, "Even if Chandrababu Naidu is hanged, there is nothing wrong." A day earlier, he had hollered, "If Naidu is shot in the middle of the road for his misdeed, there is nothing wrong."
Naidu too lost composure on more than one occasion, belying his nervousness by repeatedly invoking on voters that they duty-bound to support TDP. "You take pensions I give you. You use roads built by us. You take rations, why should you not vote for us?"

Record-breaking Expense

Estimates of a total spend of over Rs 300 crore for this by-election by both parties and candidates combined are by their very nature rumours, cannot be substantiated. But the scale of money indicates, this bypoll would surpasses reported expenses in recent by-polls in two constituencies in Karnataka.
Off the record, leaders rue having heightened the stakes so high. "The constituency lies in the heartland of YSRCP support. Nandyal was its seat, though the winning candidate defected to TDP. The anger against him for changing parties for power might nullify the sympathy factor. We should not have made it a big affair. With a strong Reddy hold and a majority of voters being Muslim, Christian and Dalits, the very social block of Jagan, a likely loss will be a big egg on our face," said a senior TDP leader currently campaigning in Nandyal.
The YSRCP, which hoped a win in the bypoll would help them wrestle the narrative, are a bit wary of a potential Naidu win, given the political push he has given, having positioned several cabinet ministers and MLAs to woo every segment of voter.
As voting dates get closer, trends both in political circles and betting syndicates show an edge to YSRCP, which will go in for a kill against the TDP. Jagan, set to start a padayatra like his father Dr Y S Rajasekhara Reddy did in to unseat Naidu in 2004, will use a victory as a conch cry for an all-out war.
Telugu Desam will be under intense pressure, with the Centre showing no inclination to increase the seats through delimitation or grant any of the major promises of the formation of Telangana.
The BJP, which has clearly no desire to allow the state to remain an "also-ran", will exploit a weaker Naidu and Jagan, perpetually vulnerable to corruption cases, to become stronger.
Cabinet expansion, arm-twisting Jagan with ED, IT and CBI cases, Central funds and a direct party reorganization after the exit of the most powerful leader, M Venkaiah Naidu, from party politics all give BJP a scope to strengthen itself at the cost of the two.
How much will the monkey benefit by refereeing the battle of the two cats will unfold from August 2 when the votes for the Nandyal Assembly bypoll are counted.

K. J. Yesudas



Kattassery Joseph Yesudas  born 10 January 1940 is an Indian Carnatic musician and film playback singer. Yesudas sings Indian classical, devotional and cinematic songs. He has recorded more than 100,000 songs in a number of Indian languages as well as Russian, ArabicLatin and English during a career spanning more than five decades. He has performed in most Indian languages except Assamese, Konkani and Kashmiri. He also composed a number of Malayalam film songs in the 1970s and 1980s. Yesudas is fondly called Gana Gandharvan (The Celestial Singer). He is considered to be a cultural icon of the Malayalam language - as well as of its ethnic group spread across the world - due largely to the fact that his songs have been profoundly ingrained into the minds of Malayalam speaking people for five decades.
Yesudas has won the National Award for the Best Male Playback Singer seven times, the Filmfare Awards five times, and the State Award for the Best Playback Singer forty-three times, which consists of awards by the state governments of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and West Bengal. He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1975, the Padma Bhushan in 2002, and the Padma Vibhushan (second-highest civilian award) in 2017 by the Government of India for his contributions towards the arts In 2011 Yesudas was honoured with the CNN-IBN outstanding achievement award having recorded over 20,000 songs in a five-decade career.In 2006, he sang 16 film songs in four South Indian languages on the same day at AVM Studio, Chennai.

K. J. Yesudas was born in Fort Kochi, in the erstwhile Kingdom of Cochin, in a Nasrani Latin-rite Roman Catholic Christian family to late Augustine Joseph and late Elizabeth Joseph. His father, who was a well-known Malayalam classical musician and stage actor, was his first guru. Yesudas was the eldest of five children, followed by three younger brothers and a younger sister. He started his academic music training at R.L.V. Music AcademyThrippunithura. Later he studied at Swathi Thirunal College of Music, Thiruvananthapuram under the tutelage of the carnatic music maestro late Sh. K.R. Kumaraswamy Iyer and the late Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer but could not complete his studies due to financial constraints. For a brief period, he was with Sri Vechur Harihara Subramania Iyer, after which he took advanced training from Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar. He completed the Ganabooshanam course at R.L.V. Music Academy, Thripunithura, Cochin and studied at Sree Swathithirunal Music Academy, Trivandrum under the tutelage of the carnatic music maestro late Sh. K.R.Kumaraswamy Iyer. In 2011 Yesudas completed his 50 years as a playback singer.

The first song sung by Yesudas is Jaathi Bhedam Matha Dwesham (music: M B Sreenivasan) on 14 November 1961, which he usually sings on all the special occasions in front of the audience. But the first film song was 'Attention Penne Attention', which he sang with Santha P. Nair, a veteran singer of that time. Yesudas began his career in playback singing in the Malayalam movie Kaalpadukal (1962) and Tamil, Telugu and Kannada movies in the early 1960s.
He got the first break in his music career with the hit Malayalam film named Bharya ( music by G. Devarajan and lyrics by Vayalar Ramavarma). In 1967, he sang hit songs in the composition of M.S.Baburaj for the film Udhyogastha directed by P.Venu. He sang in Tamil for Bommai first (music: S. Balachander), but the first released movie was Konjum Kumari (music: Veda). In 1965, he was invited by the Soviet Union government to perform at music concerts in various cities in the USSR and also sang a Russian song over Radio Kazakhstan.[10] The trio of Salil, Yesudas and Prem Nazir entered the Malayalam Cinema Industry of the 1970s.

10 Ways To Establish Goodwill With Your Market



10 Ways To Establish Goodwill With Your Market


It’s amazing what being nice will get you life. It’s even more amazing what it will do to your brand and your business. Establishing goodwill and loyalty with your audience should be a main area you focus on. When you perform acts of goodwill for your audience they will reward you with loyalty and love. Treat people right and they will treat your brand right.
Here’s 10 things you can do to establish goodwill with your market. But don’t stop with these 10, always strive to do something cool for them.
#1: Provide Unexpected Surprises
People love surprises and when you can surprise a customer with something cool and unexpected they’ll love you forever. I’ve sent books and food to my members, among other things, for no reason whatsoever. You don’t need a reason to do something cool for someone. I’ve attended events where the organizer brought out a surprise guest. The ideas are endless. Don’t worry about the cost. You’ll end up making more money, generate strong word of mouth, and keep customers longer.
#2: Be Real
The word “transparent” gets thrown around a lot these days. You have to have a brand that is completely open and transparent. If you screw up (and you will at some point) be honest and real with your audience. They know you’re human and they’ll respect you a thousand times more for being upfront and real with them.
Don’t ever try to hide something or trick people. This is the kind of stuff that gives marketers a bad name and it makes you a first class douche-bag. Make sure everything you do and offer is crystal clear. You’ll do more business that way.
#3: Always Make Your Customer Happy
The customer is not always right. I’m not sure who originally said that, but they are an idiot. That being said your focus should be on making your customers life happier. Have them leave feeling better than they were prior to coming into contact with you. It doesn’t matter whether it’s an email, blog post, video, product, or whatever. It’s incredibly important to make sure they’re happy they came in contact with you.
A customer who is truly happy with your content, product, or service is a customer who will buy time and time again. Don’t try to just leave them satisfied…leave them blown away.
#4: Be Consistent
When it comes to your brand or your business, the market demands consistency. They aren’t looking for a johnny-come-lately or someone who’s here-today-gone-tomorrow. They want to know they can depend on you. For someone to become of a fan of yours or your business you must let them know they can always count on you to deliver.
Consistency builds confidence with consumers. Be sure to focus on being consistent and reliable.
#5: Give More Than You Pitch
I love to sell. I love the art of selling. But I also know that I’ll sell more when I give first. A strong brand is built on trust. No one wants to be pitched to over and over. No one will trust a brand that offers little content while throwing a pitch down their throat. I’m not saying you can’t pitch, by all means do. You’ll have to if you want to survive and thrive.
But there has to be a balance. I’m not sure there’s a magic number but I like to follow the 80/20 rule. So in content that will include a pitch I like to have 80% be great content while the remaining 20% is left for the pitch. You can also follow a 4:1 ratio. This works best when your content is actually good. Don’t put out crap. If your content sucks then it doesn’t matter if you give us 10 pieces of content for every 1 pitch.

#6: Care About The Relationship With Your Audience
Everything you do is branding. Every interaction you have with your target audience is either increasing that relationship or hurting it. The more value you provide for your audience the stronger the relationship will be. You can’t build a sustainable brand without caring greatly about your audience.
Be aware that every email you send, every blog post, every Facebook or Twitter comment should add value to your audience. Care about them…it shows.
#7: Give Back
Make no mistake about it…giving to charity is a good marketing strategy. And there’s nothing wrong with it. If there’s a charity that speaks to your heart and you are in a position to give back then it’s your obligation. You’ll often see offers that mention a certain percentage is going to X charity. This is a win-win-win.
The customer wins because they get the product/service they want and they can feel good about themselves for helping someone in need. The charity wins because they are getting donations and attention they wouldn’t have had otherwise. And you win because it’s showing the community that you care. And when you can involve your customers in giving back you’ll build a super-tight relationship with them.
#8: Provide More Value Than What You Charge
People believe they get what they pay for. So how do you generate massive buzz and word of mouth for your business? Simply over-deliver. I personally hate the phrase over-deliver because it’s been used so much it has lost it’s impact. That being said, any time you can go above and beyond what your customer is expecting you win…BIG TIME.
Let’s say you charge $500 for your product. If the value you provide your customers is clearly worth $1,000 or even more then you’re going to have some very happy customers. These are the kind of customers who keep coming back because they know you’ll treat them right and exceed their expectations.
#9: Spend Time On Your Audience, Ignore The Rest
Don’t make the mistake of focusing your time and energy on people who aren’t your target audience. I see this a LOT in the wonderful world of social media. You know better than to assume the whole world wants your product/service. That type of un-focused, blanket marketing is a recipe for disaster. Focus on your fans and focus on the people who will become fans.
The more time and energy you spend communicating with people who don’t fit your target market, the more you alienate the ones you really want. I’ve seen authors ignore every positive comment on Amazon.com about their book. And then turn around and respond to all the negative comments offering them some time on the phone. Here’s a tip: take care of those who take care of you and screw the haters.
#10: Follow Up AFTER Purchase
What do you when someone purchases your product or service? Once you’re done celebrating, do you follow up with them? I’m going to go out on a limb and guess that you don’t. But you should! Your product may be amazing but that doesn’t mean your customer will know how to properly use it or get the most out of it. A simple follow up phone call or email can go a LONG way towards strengthening the relationship with your customers.
Once someone makes a purchase they are a bajillion times more likely to purchase from you again. Don’t be ‘one and done’ when it comes to sales. You’re trying to build a stable business and you do that with repeat customers. Take care of them and help them get the most out of what you have to offer. The better the results they get and the more satisfied they are, the more likely they are to spread the word about what you do.
As you can see, it’s not hard to build goodwill with your market. Most of these tips should be a given anyways. Step back from your business and make a list of all the ways you’re building goodwill with your audience. Find the areas you can improve on and focus on those. None of this is hard to implement and there’s no excuse to not take care of your fans.

august

What Are Articles in English Grammar? - Definition, Use & Examples


Definition of Articles

An article is a word used to modify a noun, which is a person, place, object, or idea. Technically, an article is an adjective, which is any word that modifies a noun. Usually adjectives modify nouns through description, but articles are used instead to point out or refer to nouns. There are two different types of articles that we use in writing and conversation to point out or refer to a noun or group of nouns: definite and indefinite articles.

Definite Article

Let's begin by looking at the definite article. This article is the word 'the,' and it refers directly to a specific noun or groups of nouns. For example:
  • the freckles on my face
  • the alligator in the pond
  • the breakfast burrito on my plate
Each noun or group of nouns being referred to - in these cases freckles, alligator, and breakfast burrito - is direct and specific.

Indefinite Articles

Indefinite articles are the words 'a' and 'an.' Each of these articles is used to refer to a noun, but the noun being referred to is not a specific person, place, object, or idea. It can be any noun from a group of nouns. For example:
  • a Mercedes from the car lot
  • an event in history
In each case, the noun is not specific. The Mercedes could be any Mercedes car available for purchase, and the event could be any event in the history of the world.

Article Usage with Examples

Properly using a definite article is fairly straightforward, but it can be tricky when you are trying to figure out which indefinite article to use. The article choice depends on the sound at the beginning of the noun that is being modified. There is a quick and easy way to remember this.
If the noun that comes after the article begins with a vowel sound, the appropriate indefinite article to use is 'an.' A vowel sound is a sound that is created by any vowel in the English language: 'a,' 'e,' 'i,' 'o,' 'u,' and sometimes 'y' if it makes an 'e' or 'i' sound. For example:
  • an advertisement on the radio (this noun begins with 'a,' which is a vowel)
  • an element on the periodic table (this noun begins with 'e,' which is also a vowel)